Environmental protection and conservation of natural resources have become core concern of governance irrespective of its model. Debates and efforts are on since long back especially when scientists identified the negative impacts of human activities on the environment. Domestic and international bodies ventured upon to design measures in order to adopt policies, legislation and future plans conducive to the natural properties. Growing population and the unbridled exploitation of natural resources are accepted phenomenon now days. Consequently depletion of environment and its preservation cannot be controlled by these extraneous measures as hypocritical man could not altered the situation positively, thus, internal conscience became the only option. A theological implication of environmental ecology is now becoming crucial in order to testify the measures and its appropriateness. Religions do have the answer for the dichotomy of environment and development as the limit on human conduct is extremely desired. The failure of external regulatory mechanism forced us to look at different option and obvious shelter one finds in ethical component of individual’s behavior. Religious mandates and dictates may prove fruitful in this regard and eventually Hindu Religious texts have enough to say in this regard. Present paper very briefly ventured upon to discuss the texts and messages therein aiming at sustaining environmental properties. It also discusses how we treat and regard natural properties in our daily life.
Article, 48(A) & Article 51 (g), 1976: Article 48 A was added to the Constitution of India in the year 1976 through Forty Second Amendement which provides: The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Article 51 A (g), which is part of Fundamental Duties was also added to the Constitution in the same year; It provides: 'It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.’
Biswas, M. R. & Bishwas, A. K. (1981). Environment and Development in Impact of Development of Science & Technology on Environment (p.107, 108, 109). Calcutta: Indian Science Congress Association.
Bratspies, R. M. & Miller, R. A. (1941). Trail Smelter Arbitration (US Vs. Canada). American Journal of International Law, 35, 684.
Caldwell, L.K. (1995). International Environmental Policy (3rd edn). London: Duke University Press.
Charak Sanhita 27/213, 215
Derr, T. S. (1975). Religious Responsibility for Ecological Crisis. World View, 18, 43.
Desai, A. (2001). Environmental Jurisprudence (II Edi.). Allahabad: Moderrn Law House.
Dhawan, R. (1989). Law and Society in Modern India (p. 17, 18). Marc Galenter (Ed.). Delhi: Oxford University Press Delhi.
Dwivedi, O. P. (1989). World Religion and the Environment (p. 159,160-164, 171, 175, 176). Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House.
Eddy, A. (1992). Political Theory (p. 339,3340,342). Delhi: S. Chand Publication.
Hart, H. L. A. (1970). The concept of Law (p. 181-195). London: Oxford University Press.
Indian Penal Code, 1973 Sections 268-294A: Chapter 14 of Indian Penal Code which deals with the offences relating to public health, convenience, nuisance and decency under sections 268-294A. Environment has been considered through public misance, adulteration, drug, fouling of water, stream, polluting atmosphere etc.
Jayant, B. (2002). Environmentalism in India. Everyman’s Science, 37, 143.
Luna, D. & Visscher, D. (1957). The Lake Lanoux Arbitration (France VS Spain). International Law Reports, 24, 101.
Manivasakam, N. (1984). Environmental Pollution (p. 38-96, 130-135, 97-106, 121-129). Delhi: National Book Trust.
Manusmriti 4/56, 5/45
Markandey Smriti Puran, 32
Rigveda 1/89/10; 7/49/2
Robinson, N. A. (1993). Agenda 21: Earth’s Action Plan (p.1). NewYork: Oceana Publication.
Sands, P. (1995). Principles of International Environmental Law (Vol. 01, p. 30-32, 33, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46). New York: Manchester Press.
Sharma, A. K. (1981). Presidential address Indian Science Congress (p. 5, 6). Calcutta: Proceeding of Indian Science Congress.
Stuart, B. & Donald, M. G. (2001). Environmental Law (p. 84, 97). Delhi: Universal Publications. (Conservation of Living Resources of the Sea 1954; UN General Assembly Resolutions on Atomic Energy and its Radiation effects 912 (x) 1955; Res. 913 (x) 1955; Res. 1147 (XII) 1957; Res. 1252 (XIII) 1958; Res 1379 (XIV) 1959; Res. 1402 (XIV) 1959; Res. 1649 (XVI) 1961: Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963; International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil London 1954; High Seas Fishing and conservation Convention 1958; Ramsar Convention 1971; Treaty of Rome 1957; African Nature Convention 1967; Oslo dumping Convention 1972; Bio Spherere 1968)
The Times of India (1992, June 14). Rio Declaration of Principles. The Times of India. Delhi
Under Cr. P.C. 1973 section 133-143: environmental issues find place where a SDM has been given powers to take preventive measures.
UNEP (1972, 5-16 June). Declaration United Nations Conference on Human Environment. Stolkholm: UNEP
UNESCO (2002, March). Bulletin. Delhi: UNESCO club.
Vishanu puran 3/11/12
Vamanpuran, 14/24, 26
Yajurved 13/47, 49
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.