Maricha (Black pepper) is considered the king of spices throughout the world due to its pungent taste and particular aroma and its medicinal value in day today life. Today, different parts of Maricha and their chemical components are used as drugs, preservatives, insecticidal, and larvacidal agent. Maricha has been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for a very long time. It has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2nd century BC and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, cough etc. In Ayurvedic classics, it is recommended for various diseases due to Agnimandya (dimnution of digestive fire) such as Grahaniroga (sprue syndrome), Visuchika (cholera), Ajirna (indigestion), Jwara (fever), Arsha roga (piles), Atisara (diorrhoea) etc. The renounced physician of Ayurveda, Maharshi Charaka, in olden period has described it as to be Shulaghana (anticolic/ analgesic), Deepniya (appetizer), Krimighna (vermicidal). Also, he has enumerated it as a Pranvaha srotas rasayan (rejuvenates respiratory system). Thus it is used frequently for the treatment of cough, corhyza, cold, asthma, hoarseness of voice, tuberculosis etc. It is used as a solo drug as well as an essential ingredient of numerous compound formulations and prescriptions of Ayurvedic medicine. Maricha is one of the ingredients of Trikatu. It is beneficial to increase the bioavailability of the drug. The objective of this article is to re-orientate the knowledge and information about Maricha in classical texts. This article highlights synonyms, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic actions and uses, and different formulations of Maricha as described in ancient Ayurvedic literature the Brihat trayi and the later text Nighantus etc.
Adarsha Nighantu, Pippalyadi varga (354)
Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Haritakyadi Varga ( 60)
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa sthana (18/180)
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana (20/193)
Charaka Samhita, Sutra sthana (27/298)
Charaka Samhita, Sutra sthana (4/15)
Charaka Samhita, Sutra sthana (4/27)
Charaka Samhita, Sutra sthana (4/45)
Charaka Samhita, Sutra sthana, (4/6)
Dhanvantri Nighantu, Shatapushpadi varga (78-79)
Kaideva Nighantu, Aushdhi Varga (1161-1164)
Madanpal Nighantu, Shunthyadi Varga (10-11)
Raja Nighantu, Pippalyadi varga (1)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (1/10)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (1/17)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (1/20)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (6/12)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (6/54-55)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (7/13-15)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (7/22-23)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda (9/148-152)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Poorva Khanda (4/23)
Sharangdhara Samhita, Poorva Khanda (4/9)
Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana (18/105)
Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana (18/100),
Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana (46/224)
Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana (46/224)
Sutra Sthana, Sutra Sthana (38/22)
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