Suffering as a State-of-Mind




How to Cite

FORREST, L. R. (2015). Suffering as a State-of-Mind. Dev Sanskriti Interdisciplinary International Journal, 6, 16–24.


This theoretical paper is an attempt at exploring and understanding the convoluted concept of “suffering” according to the Indian philosophy, including Buddha, Patanjali, Sivananda, the Gita & Jainism. However, the three predominant schools of thought on suffering discussed in detail in the paper are Buddhism, Samkhya and Yoga, along with the concepts of dukha, purusha and prakriti, and the five afflictions mentioned in Patanjali’s Yoga sutras. Drawing from these theories of suffering the author has generated a concept map to facilitate one’s understanding about suffering, and finally, a pertinent conclusion has been drawn describing suffering as a state of mind that is free from the attachment of the transient and is just a fleeting thought of the human mind.


Ganeri, J. (2002). The Collected Essays of Bimal Krishna Matilal: Ethics and Epics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gnanarama, V. P. (2000). Essentials of Buddhism. Singapore: Pategama Gnanarama.

Iyengar, B. K. S. (2014). Light on the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali. London: HarperCollins Publishers.

King, R. (1999). Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought. New Delhi: Ideal Impressions Pvt. Ltd.

Maehle, G. (2006). Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy. California: New World Library.

Matilal, B. K. (2004). Logical and Ethical Issues: An Essay on Indian Philosophy and Religion. New Delhi: DC Publishers.

Ranganathan, S. (2008). Patan̄jali's Yoga Sūtra. Gurgaon, HR: Penguin Books.

Saksena, S. K. (1970). Essays on Indian Philosophy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Sivananda, S. S. (1998). Mind - Its Mysteries and Control. New Delhi: The Divine Life Society.

Tapasyananda, S. (n.d). Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā: The Scripture of Mankind. Howrah, WB: Sri Ramakrishna Math Printing Press.

Virupakshananda, S. (1995). Sāṁkhya Kārikā of Īśvara Kṛṣṇa with the TattvaKaumudī of Śrī VācaspatiMiśra. Mylapore: Sri Ramakrishna Math.

Wijesekera, O. H. A. (2008). The Three Signata: Anicca, Dukkha, Anattā. Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Socie

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.