COVID19 pandemic is global infectious disease caused by SARS Corona Virus 2. The pandemic so far has affected more than 200 countries and territories causing more than 12,552,765 human infections and 561,617 human deaths. The situation has created global emergency crisis and is rapidly spreading. The infected humans are known to have low immunity and once infected developed conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, breathlessness, severe dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, hypoxia and cardiac arrest, etc. In addition, people with chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disorders, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), asthma, and elderly people with weakened immune systems are known to be more prone to catch the infection. So far no treatment is clinically proven and available, but many are under investigations; the best approach to fight against the disease is prevention and management of COVID19 infection. Yoga, meditation, and yogic bio-cleansing practices previously evidenced for general immune boosting capacity, and are also evidenced for the management of respiratory disorders, non-communicable disorders such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc, and also for psychological disorders and ailments; by reviewing these studies, in the presented study, it was attempted to shed a light on the possibility of supporting role of Yoga for improving physical and mental health in the patients with COVID19 with respiratory disorders, co-morbidities (diabetes and cardiovascular disorders), decreased immune function, and psychological illness.
Tesini B. Coronaviruses and Acute Respiratory Syndromes (COVID19, MERS, and SARS) - Infectious Diseases - MSD Manual Professional Edition [Internet]. MSD Manual Professional Edition. 2020 [cited 26 June 2020]. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/respiratory-viruses/coronaviruses-and-acute-respiratory-syndromes-COVID19,-mers,-and-sars
Kandola A. Coronavirus (COVID19) origin: Cause and how it spreads [Internet]. Medicalnewstoday.com. 2020 [cited 6 June 2020]. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/coronavirus-causes
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic [Internet]. Mayoclinic.org. 2020 [cited 6 June 2020]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20479976
Guan WJ, Liang WH, Zhao Y, Liang HR, Chen ZS, Li YM, Liu XQ, Chen RC, Tang CL, Wang T, Ou CQ. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis. European Respiratory Journal. 2020 May 1;55(5). https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00547-2020
Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, evaluation and treatment coronavirus (COVID19). InStatpearls [internet] 2020 Mar 8. StatPearls Publishing.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, Ho RC. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020 Jan;17(5):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729
Andersen BL, Farrar WB, Golden-Kreutz D, Kutz LA, MacCallum R, Courtney ME, Glaser R. Stress and immune responses after surgical treatment for regional breast cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998 Jan 7;90(1):30-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.1.30
Torales J, O'Higgins M, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Ventriglio A. The outbreak of COVID19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 31:0020764020915212. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212
Sahay BK. Yoga and diabetes. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 1986 Sep;34(9):645.
Innes KE, Vincent HK. The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007 Dec 1;4. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel103
Chen N, Xia X, Qin L, Luo L, Han S, Wang G, Zhang R, Wan Z. Effects of 8-week Hatha yoga training on metabolic and inflammatory markers in healthy, female Chinese subjects: a randomized clinical trial. BioMed research international. 2016 Oct;2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5387258
Jindal N, Joshi NP. Comparative study of Vamana and Virechanakarma in controlling blood sugar levels in diabetes mellitus. Ayu. 2013 Jul;34(3):263. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8520.123115
Pawan K, Ishwar B. Effect of yogic practices on glycated haemoglobin (Hba1c) level of type II diabetese mellitus in urban adults.
Cade WT, Reeds DN, Mondy KE, Overton ET, Grassino J, Tucker S, Bopp C, Laciny E, Hubert S, Lassa‐Claxton S, Yarasheski KE. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV‐infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. HIV medicine. 2010 Jul;11(6):379-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00801.x
Hagins M, Selfe T, Innes K. Effectiveness of yoga for hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013 Jan 1;2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/649836
Tyagi A, Cohen M. Yoga and hypertension: a systematic review. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2014;20(2):32-59.
Murugesan R, Govindarajulu N, Bera TK. Effect of selected yogic practices on the management of hypertension. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2000 Apr 10;44(2):207-10.
Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, Liu S, Zhao P, Liu H, Zhu L, Tai Y. Pathological findings of COVID19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine. 2020 Apr 1;8(4):420-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X
Rabago D, Zgierska A, Mundt M, Barrett B, Bobula J, Maberry R. Efficacy of daily hypertonic saline nasal irrigation among patients with sinusitis: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Practice. 2002 Dec 1;51(12):1049-55.
Tano L, Tano K. A daily nasal spray with saline prevents symptoms of rhinitis. Acta oto-laryngologica. 2004 Nov 1;124(9):1059-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016480410017657
Lin L, Yan W, Zhao X. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with normal saline nasal irrigation at different temperature. Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou Jing wai ke za zhi= Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 2014 Feb 1;49(2):109-14..
Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. An integrated approach of yoga therapy for bronchial asthma: a 3-54-month prospective study. Journal of asthma. 1986 Jan 1;23(3):123-37. https://doi.org/10.3109/02770908609077486
Ranjita R, Hankey A, Nagendra HR, Mohanty S. Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2016 Jul 1;7(3):158-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2015.12.001
Spicuzza L, Gabutti A, Porta C, Montano N, Bernardi L. Yoga and chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia. The Lancet. 2000 Oct 28;356(9240):1495-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02881-6
Bernardi L, Spadacini G, Bellwon J, Hajric R, Roskamm H, Frey AW. Effect of breathing rate on oxygen saturation and exercise performance in chronic heart failure. The Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1308-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)10341-5
Abel AN, Lloyd LK, Williams JS. The effects of regular yoga practice on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: a literature review. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013 Mar 1;19(3):185-90. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2011.0516
Sodhi C, Singh S, Dandona PK. A study of the effect of yoga training on pulmonary functions in patients with bronchial asthma. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;53(2):169-74.
Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Oct 19;291(6502):1077-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.291.6502.1077
Liu XC, Pan L, Hu Q, Dong WP, Yan JH, Dong L. Effects of yoga training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of thoracic disease. 2014 Jun;6(6):795.
Donesky-Cuenco D, Nguyen HQ, Paul S, Carrieri-Kohlman V. Yoga therapy decreases dyspnea-related distress and improves functional performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. The journal of alternative and complementary medicine. 2009;15(3):225-34. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0389
Fulambarker A, Farooki B, Kheir F, Copur AS, Srinivasan L, Schultz S. Effect of yoga in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American journal of therapeutics. 2012 Mar 1;19(2):96-100. https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181f2ab86
Nagendra HR. Yoga for COVID19. International Journal of Yoga. 2020 May 1;13(2):87. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_27_20
Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, Bucci E, Piacentini M, Ippolito G, Melino G. COVID19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0530-3
Pullen PR, Thompson WR, Benardot D, Brandon LJ, Mehta PK, Rifai LU, Vadnais DS, Parrott JM, Khan BV. Benefits of yoga for African American heart failure patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Apr 1;42(4):651-7. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181bf24c4
Infante JR, Peran F, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Dominguez ML, Garcia L, Duran C, Roldan A. Levels of immune cells in transcendental meditation practitioners. International journal of yoga. 2014 Jul;7(2):147. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.133899
Lim SA, Cheong KJ. Regular yoga practice improves antioxidant status, immune function, and stress hormone releases in young healthy people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2015 Sep 1;21(9):530-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.0044
Schoenborn JR, Wilson CB. Regulation of interferon‐γ during innate and adaptive immune responses. Advances in immunology. 2007 Jan 1;96:41-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(07)96002-2
Del Vecchio M, Bajetta E, Canova S, Lotze MT, Wesa A, Parmiani G, Anichini A. Interleukin-12: biological properties and clinical application. Clinical Cancer Research. 2007 Aug 15;13(16):4677-85. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0776
Gopal A, Mondal S, Gandhi A, Arora S, Bhattacharjee J. Effect of integrated yoga practices on immune responses in examination stress-A preliminary study. International journal of yoga. 2011 Jan;4(1):26. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.78178
Naoroibam R, Metri KG, Bhargav H, Nagaratna R, Nagendra HR. Effect of Integrated Yoga (IY) on psychological states and CD4 counts of HIV-1 infected Patients: A Randomized controlled pilot study. International journal of yoga. 2016 Jan;9(1):57. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.171723
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Bennett JM, Andridge R, Peng J, Shapiro CL, Malarkey WB, Emery CF, Layman R, Mrozek EE, Glaser R. Yoga's impact on inflammation, mood, and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014 Apr 1;32(10):1040. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.51.8860
Bower JE, Greendale G, Crosswell AD, Garet D, Sternlieb B, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Arevalo J, Cole SW. Yoga reduces inflammatory signaling in fatigued breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 May 1;43:20-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.01.019
Zhang W, Zhao Y, Zhang F, Wang Q, Li T, Liu Z, Wang J, Qin Y, Zhang X, Yan X, Zeng X. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China. Clinical Immunology. 2020 Mar 25:108393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108393
Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology. 2011 Apr 7;117(14):3720-32. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-07-273417
Maxwell L, Barrett B, Chase J, Brown R, Ewers T. Self-reported mental health predicts acute respiratory infection. WMJ: official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin. 2015 Jun;114(3):100.
Ayurveda's immunity boosting measures for self care during COVID 19 crisis [Internet]. www.ayush.gov.in. 2020 [cited June 2020]. Available from: https://www.ayush.gov.in/docs/123.pdf
DiGiovanni C, Conley J, Chiu D, Zaborski J. Factors influencing compliance with quarantine in Toronto during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Biosecurity and bioterrorism: biodefense strategy, practice, and science. 2004 Dec 1;2(4):265-72. https://doi.org/10.1089/bsp.2004.2.265
Pan PJ, Chang SH, Yu YY. A support group for home-quarantined college students exposed to SARS: learning from practice. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work. 2005 Dec 1;30(4):363-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/01933920500186951
Liu K, Chen Y, Wu D, Lin R, Wang Z, Pan L. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on anxiety and sleep quality in patients with COVID19. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2020 Mar 6:101132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101132
Prasad G, Bhardwaj I, Vishwavidyalaya GK, Haridwar U. Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Practices on General Well Being of Urban Population. Available from- http://indianyoga.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/v7-issue1-article7.pdf
Shroff FM, Asgarpour M. Yoga and mental health: A review. Journal of Physiotherapy and Physical Rehabilitation. 2017;2:2573-0312. https://doi.org/10.4172/2573-0312.1000132
Banerjee B, Vadiraj HS, Ram A, Rao R, Jayapal M, Gopinath KS, Ramesh BS, Rao N, Kumar A, Raghuram N, Hegde S. Effects of an integrated yoga program in modulating psychological stress and radiation-induced genotoxic stress in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Integrative cancer therapies. 2007 Sep;6(3):242-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735407306214
Tayyebi A, babahaji M, SADEGHI SM, EBADI A, eynollahi B. Study of the effect of Hatha Yoga exercises on stress, anxiety and depression among hemodialysis patients.
Katzman MA, Vermani M, Gerbarg PL, Brown RP, Iorio C, Davis M, Cameron C, Tsirgielis D. A multicomponent yoga-based, breath intervention program as an adjunctive treatment in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities. International journal of yoga. 2012 Jan;5(1):57. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.91716
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.