Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Profiles of Marine, Borehole and Sea Water


sea water
heavy metals


How to Cite

Uzoma, M. A. N., & M., A. U. (2018). Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Profiles of Marine, Borehole and Sea Water. Dev Sanskriti Interdisciplinary International Journal, 12, 67–77.


The extent of water pollution on some rivers and lagoons within Badagry and its environs in Lagos State Nigeria has been critical analyzedwith respect to the physico-chemical properties of the surface and underground waters and the results show that total dissolved solids for sea water ranged from 4523-4408 ppm, lagoon water 622-1471 ppm and borehole water 250-61 ppm. Total suspended solid for sea water ranged from 422-231 ppm, lagoon water 129-133 ppm and borehole water 41-146 ppm. Salinity values for sea water ranged from 0.3-0.3 ppm, lagoon 0.5-0.3 ppm and borehole water 0.1-0.3 ppm. Methyl orange alkalinity for sea water ranged from 3.5-3.0 ppm, lagoon water 1.1-1.0 ppm and borehole water 0.5-0.8 ppm. Phenolphthalein alkalinity for sea water ranged from 0.4-0.2 ppm, lagoon water 0.2-0.3 ppm and borehole water 0.1-0.2 ppm. Specific gravity for sea water ranged from 16.371-16.407 ppm, lagoon water 15.878-15.673 ppm and borehole water 15.554-15.839 ppm. Heavy metals such as Ca2+ for sea water ranged from 436-427, lagoon water 497-488 and borehole water 345-336. Mg2+ for sea water ranged from 128-136, lagoon water 133-189 and borehole water 112-116. Fe2+ for sea water ranged from 2.546-2.512, lagoon water 2,786-2.869 and borehole water 1.465-1.354. Cu2+ for sea water ranged from 2.84-2.62, lagoon water 3.86-3.86 and borehole water 0.84-0.93. Mn2+ for sea water ranged from 0.756-0.726, lagoon water 1.026-1.022 and borehole water 0.450-0.470. Cr2+ for sea water ranged from 1.07-1.248, lagoon water 1.897-1.957 and borehole water 0.026-0.028. Bio-chemical analysis such as temperature for sea water ranged from 27.5-28.5 ?C, lagoon water 29.8-28.7 ?C and borehole water 27.6-27.8 ?C. pH for sea water ranged from 6.8-6.8, lagoon water 6.9-7.0 and borehole 7.3-7.2. BOD and COD in see water ranged from 754-766; 1876-1833 mg/l respectively, lagoon water 978-986; 1943-1982 mg/l respectively whereas the dissolved oxygen for borehole water ranged from 5.54-5.66 mg/l


Agunwamba JC, Maduka CN, Ofosaren AM (2006) Analysis of pollution status of Amadi Creek and its management. J Water Supply Res Technol-AQUA(55)6:427-435

Alam JB, Islam MR, Muyen Z, Mamun M, Islam S (2007) Water quality parameters along rivers. Int J Environ SciTechnol 4(1):159-167

American Public Health Association, (1995).American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, and Water Environment Federation. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, volume 2. American Public Health Association.

American Public Health Association. (1995). Water environment federation. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19.

American Public Health Association. Water environment federation (1998) standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.

Bradley N., Harrison H., Hodgson G., Kamanyire K., Andrew K. and Virginia M. (2014). Essentials of environmental public health science.

Fair GM, Meyer JC, Okun DA (1971). Elements of water supply and wastewater disposal, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, NY

Garg SK (2006). Sewage disposal and air pollution engineering. Environmental Engineering, 18th Edn. Vol. II. Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, pp 228-278.

George Tchobanoglous and Franklin L Burton. Waste water engineering. Management, 7:1-4, 1991.

GuoqingWu,WeihongBi, JiamingLv, and Guangwei Fu(2011). Determination of chemical oxygen demand in water using near-infrared transmission and UV absorbance method. Chiese Optics Letters, 09(s1):310705.

Henry JG and Heinke GW (2005). Environmental science and engineering. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, pp 421-491.

Henze, Harremoes, Cour Jansen, E. Arvin (2002). Waste water treatment

Krantz D and Kifferstein B (2007). Leachate characterization and assessment of Ground water pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site.Water pollution and society.

Mancy K. H. (2017) Instrumental analysis for water pollution.

Mike Cable. (2005). Calibration: A Technician's Guide. ISA.

MogensHenze, (2002). Waste water treatment: biological and chemical processes. Springer Science & Business Media

Naima Bradley, Henrietta Harrison, Greg Hodgson, RobieKamanyire, Andrew Kibble, and Virginia Murray. (2014). Essentials of Environmental Public Health Science: A Handbook for Field Professionals. Oxford University Press.

Nicholas P Cheremisinoff and Anton Davletshin. (2015).Hydraulic Fracturing Operations: Handbook of Environmental Management Practices. John Wiley & Sons.

Radwan M, Willems P, El-sadek A and Berlamont J (2003). Modelling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in river water using a detailed and a simplified model. Int J River Basin Manage 1(2):97-103

Rounds SA, (2001). Modeling water quality in the Tualatin River: achievements and limitations. In: Warwick JJ (ed) AWRA annual spring specialty conference proceedings, ''Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling.'' American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, Virginia, TPS-01-1, pp 115-120

Tchobanoglous G, Burton FL (1991). Waste water engineering: treatment, disposal and reuse. McGraw-Hill International Edition, pp 1195-1225.

Tom Murdoch, Martha Cheo, and Kate O'Laughlin.(1996). The streamkeeper's field guide: watershed inventory and stream monitoring methods.

UNESCO (2006). Water a shared responsibility. The United Nations world water development report 2. New York, p 601.

T Srinivas. (2008). Environmental biotechnology. New Age International.

Villeneuve JP, Hubert P, Mailhot A, Rousseau AN (1998) Hydrological modeling and water management. Rev Sci Eau 11 (Special 10th anniversary).

Wayne Boyles. (1997). The science of chemical oxygen demand. Technical information series, Booklet, (9):24, 1997.

World Bank (1995). Nigeria strategic options for redressing industrial pollution. World Bank. Industry and Energy Division, West Central Africa Dept. 2, p 76

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.